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Java Spring Boot API Authorization Tutorial

This tutorial demonstrates how to add API authorization to a Java Spring Boot application.

This tutorial shows how to add authorization to Java Spring Boot API with PlusAuth. If you do not have a PlusAuth account, register from here.

This tutorial follows plusauth-spring-backend-starter sample project on Github. You can download and follow the tutorial via the sample project.

Create PlusAuth Client

After you sign up or log in to PlusAuth, you need to create a client to get the necessary configuration keys in the dashboard. Go to Clients and create a client with the type of Server to Server Application

Configure Client

Get Client Properties

You will need your Client Id and Client Secret for interacting with PlusAuth. You can retrieve them from the created client's details.

Configure APIs

Create API

API is a definition in PlusAuth equals to your services which you want to secure. You need to create an API to add authorization to your app. Go to Api's and create a new API. Provide a name and audience to your api. Audience must be a URL that identifies your api, like https://example.com/api.

Create API Permissions

After you create the API, you can create permissions for it. Permissions allow you to define how resources can be accessed with a specific access token. Go to Dashboard > Api's and click on the Permissions button on the row at the data table which contains your API.

This tutorial uses users:read, users:write, users:update and users:delete permissions to secure resources

Authorize Client

Finally, authorize your client in your api to grant permissions. Go to Dashboard > Api's , then select your api and navigate to Authorized Clients. Add your client to the Authorized Clients list and grant permissions to it.

Configure Spring Boot to add Authorization

Create a Spring Boot application or download the sample project from the link on top of the page.

Add Dependencies

  • If using Gradle
implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web'
implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-oauth2-resource-server'
implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-devtools'
  • If using Maven
<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-oauth2-resource-server</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
        <optional>true</optional>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>
spring-boot-starter-oauth2-resource-server provides all Spring Security dependencies to add authorization

Configure Spring Security

The sample uses application.yml file to add Oauth2 issuer, jwks uri, and audience. Other configuration mechanisms like application.properties are also supported.

#src/main/resources/application.yml
plusauth:
  audience: {YOUR-AUDIENCE}

spring:
  security:
    oauth2:
      resourceserver:
        jwt:
          issuer-uri: https://{YOUR-TENANT-NAME}.plusauth.com
          jwk-set-uri: https://{YOUR-TENANT-NAME}.plusauth.com/.well-known/jwks.json
Change audience and tenant fields with the data which you created earlier. Spring Oauth2 Security fetches all the information from jwk-set-uri. Put your tenant name to Issuer Uri and Jwks Uri like https://example.plusauth.com

Configure Authorization Middleware

WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter interface provides a way to add authorization middleware to endpoints. SecurityConfig middleware, which is defined below, checks the request's header for access token. An error response returns from middleware if the token is not present in the header of the request.

// com/plusauth/starter/config/SecurityConfig.java

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
public class SecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

  @Value("${plusauth.audience}")
  private String audience;

  @Value("${spring.security.oauth2.resourceserver.jwt.jwk-set-uri}")
  private String jwtSetUri;

  @Value("${spring.security.oauth2.resourceserver.jwt.issuer-uri}")
  private String issuer;

  private JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
    // Build at+jwt token decoder with Nimbus
    NimbusJwtDecoder jwtDecoder = NimbusJwtDecoder.withJwkSetUri(jwtSetUri)
        .jwtProcessorCustomizer(p -> p.setJWSTypeVerifier(
            new DefaultJOSEObjectTypeVerifier<>(new JOSEObjectType("at+jwt")))) // Add support for at+jwt token type
        .build();

    // Add audience validator to get decoder
    OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> audienceValidator = new AudienceValidator(audience);
    OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> withIssuer = JwtValidators.createDefaultWithIssuer(issuer);
    OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> withAudience = new DelegatingOAuth2TokenValidator<>(withIssuer, audienceValidator);
    jwtDecoder.setJwtValidator(withAudience);

    return jwtDecoder;
  }

  @Override
  public void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {

    // Add authorization to users endpoint
    http.requiresChannel().anyRequest().requiresInsecure().and().cors()
        .and().csrf().disable()
        .authorizeRequests()
        .antMatchers(HttpMethod.GET, "/users/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_users:read")
        .antMatchers(HttpMethod.POST, "/users/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_users:write")
        .antMatchers(HttpMethod.PUT, "/users/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_users:update")
        .antMatchers(HttpMethod.DELETE, "/users/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_users:delete")
        .anyRequest()
        .authenticated() // All requests require authentication
        .and()
        .oauth2ResourceServer() // add oauth2 resource server configuration
        .jwt().decoder(jwtDecoder()); // set jwt decoder

  }
}

You may have noticed that the Audience value defined in the Create API section is used here.

Also, jwtDecoder provides token decoder and validation functionality to security middleware. It also provides scope validation if the endpoint requires permission.

// com/plusauth/starter/config/AudienceValidator.java

class AudienceValidator implements OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> {

  private final String audience;

  AudienceValidator(String audience) {
    this.audience = audience;
  }

  // Token audience validation
  public OAuth2TokenValidatorResult validate(Jwt jwt) {
    OAuth2Error error = new OAuth2Error("invalid_token", "The required audience is missing", null);

    if (jwt.getAudience().contains(audience)) {
      return OAuth2TokenValidatorResult.success();
    }
    return OAuth2TokenValidatorResult.failure(error);
  }
}

Create Protected Controller

Add a Controller to your application to serve API endpoints. All routes are protected by SecurityConfig, which is defined in Configure Authorization Middleware section, so you don't need to add any annotation to secure endpoints.

// com/plusauth/starter/web/UserController.java

@RestController
@RequestMapping(value = "/users")
public class UserController {

  @GetMapping
  public String findAll() {
    return "All Users List";
  }

  @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.CREATED)
  @PostMapping
  public String create() {
    return "New User Created";
  }

  @PutMapping
  public String update() {
    return "User Updated";
  }

  @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.OK)
  @DeleteMapping
  public String delete() {
    return "User Deleted";
  }
}

See it in action

Start your app and follow the Using API section to see it in action.

Using API

You need to obtain an access token to call your API. This tutorial shows how OAuth Client Credentials Flow works for server-to-server communication where there is no user and login process. You will need your client's Client Id and Client Secret properties to acquire an access token in Client Credentials Flow. Also, you must include Audience and Scope parameters to access your API.

If you are looking for other authorization flows that require login and user, refer to Regular Web Application or Single Page Application quickstarts.

Obtain Access Token

You can obtain an access token using the command line or another application. Create a POST request and enter the required parameters.

# bash

curl --request POST \
  --url 'https://<YOUR_TANENT_ID>.plusauth.com/oauth2/token' \
  --header 'content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded' \
  --data 'grant_type=client_credentials' \
  --data 'client_id=<YOUR_CLIENT_ID>' \
  --data 'client_secret=<YOUR_CLIENT_SECRET>' \
  --data 'audience=<YOUR_AUDIENCE>' \
  --data 'scope=<SCOPE>'

You may have noticed that the values defined in Configure Client and Configure APIs sections are used here. If you have used different values make sure to update this file accordingly.

If you are following the sample project, your scope parameter needs to be set like following users:read users:write users:update users:delete to access the example API.

Call Your API

  • Calling Endpoint Without Access Token

If you request your protected endpoint without an access token, you will get a 401 Unauthorized error response.

# bash

> curl -i http://localhost:8080/users
HTTP/1.1 401
Vary: Origin
WWW-Authenticate: Bearer
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, max-age=0, must-revalidate
Pragma: no-cache
Expires: 0
X-Frame-Options: DENY
Content-Length: 0
  • Calling Endpoint With Access Token

If you request your protected endpoint with a valid access token, you will get a 200 OK response.

# bash

> curl -i http://localhost:8080/users \
-H "Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6ImF0K2p3dCIsImtpZCI6Inh4T3l2R0hWV3dCIsImtpZ..."
HTTP/1.1 200
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, max-age=0, must-revalidate
Pragma: no-cache
Expires: 0
Content-Type: text/plain;charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 14

All Users List

If you request your protected endpoint with insufficient scope, you will get 403 Forbidden error response.

# bash

> curl -i http://localhost:8080/users \
-H "Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6ImF0K2p3dCIsImtpZCI6Inh4T3l2R0hWV3dvc0dOMU9ON..."
HTTP/1.1 403
Vary: Origin
WWW-Authenticate: Bearer error="insufficient_scope", error_description="The request requires higher privileges than provided by the access token."
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, max-age=0, must-revalidate
Pragma: no-cache
Expires: 0
X-Frame-Options: DENY
Content-Length: 0

As you see, the access token needs to have the users:read scope to access the endpoint.